Our Culture

If God Rules Over All Things, Does that Make God the Author of Evil?

By: Brad Rogers

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In a recent sermon [1] on making wise decisions from the book of Proverbs (specifically focused on Proverbs 16:1-9) I made the comment that, however philosophically unsatisfying it may be, God rules and reigns over everything that happens in this world through our free choices.  Some of the key verses that show this are Prov. 16:1,3-4, 9:

  • 1:  The plans of the heart belong to man, but the answer of the tongue is from the Lord.

  • 3:  Commit your work to the Lord, and your plans will be established.

  • 4:  The Lord has made everything for its purpose, even the wicked for the day of trouble.

  • 9:  The heart of man plans his way, but the Lord establishes his steps.

This leads many to the following question, “If God is rules over everything that happens in this world through our choices, does this make God the author of evil?”

The testimony of the Scriptures is that God is not the author of evil. I mentioned this in the sermon; and while I did not elaborate at the time, I did promise a blog on this subject. This post will serve as my meager attempt to address this perplexing issue in short form. 

 

The Undefiled, Unreserved Goodness of God in whom there is no evil

It is important for us to grasp God’s goodness clearly as the Bible reveals it at the outset of this discussion. In James 1:13, we find these words, “Let no one say when he is tempted, ‘I am being tempted by God,’ for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one.” This verse says that God does not tempt anyone to sin.  The reason given is that God himself cannot be tempted with evil. Since God cannot be tempted by evil, God cannot commit evil. In fact, James will go on to say that we are tempted by our own sinful desires.[2] 

God cannot be tempted by evil because God’s nature is thoroughly good as the Scriptures repeatedly testify. Deuteronomy 32:4 says, “The Rock, his work is perfect, for all his ways are justice. A God of faithfulness and without iniquity just and upright is he.”  Using light and darkness imagery for good and evil, the apostle John writes in 1John 1:5, “This is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.”  James 1:17 states that God is the giver of all good gifts and he gives good gifts because his very nature is thoroughly good.

 

God Rules over evil by means of secondary causes

So how does the Bible say that God rules over evil without being responsible for evil? This is a really difficult question to answer and there is much mystery here.  However, the Bible does give us guardrails that keep us on track even if we do not find precise answers that address every aspect of these questions.  One way we can answer this is to say that God permits evil.  We could also say that God rules over evil by means of secondary causes.  As we saw with James 1:17, God rules over good such that he is cause (first cause) of all good in such a way that he is ultimately responsible for it.  However, God rules over evil in such a way that he is not responsible for it.  God permits evil, but God gives evil its dimensions within his own purposes.  The secondary causes for evil can be evil in the spiritual realm of Satan and his demons or evil in the human realm where we, as humans commit evil –all of us being responsible for evil committed before God. In the book of Job, we are taken “behind the curtain” to see that Satan has to ask God’s permission to bring calamity upon Job and his family.  God is ruling, and yet, God is not authoring the evil in such a way that he is morally culpable for it.  James 1:14 says that we humans are often tempted by our own sinful desires such that evil in this world can stem from within us.  The apostle John makes it most clear that God is not the author of the wrong in this world in 1John 2:16, “For all that is in the world—the desires of the flesh and the desires of the eyes and pride of life—is not from the Father but is from the world.”

 

The Cross and Evil

However unsatisfying the idea of God’s permitting evil or ruling over the world through secondary causes might be, these truths are attested throughout the Bible. We see this most vividly at the crucifixion of Jesus.[3]  When the apostle Peter was released from prison, the 4th chapter of Acts records him praising God saying, “…for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place.”  Herod and Pontius Pilate acted according to their own choices and are rightly held responsible by God for their decisions. However, there is something much greater happening.  At the cross, we see God’s determination to bring good from evil.  For through Jesus all the sins of those who love him are paid in full no matter how heinous the evil committed.  While we don’t know the reasons why God continues to permit evil, the cross of Jesus shows that God is not merely able to use it for our good, but that He does use evil for our greatest good. God is not the author of evil, he is the author of good, and the grace of Jesus provided at the cross is the sweetest of all of his good gifts.


[1] While I have no intention of listening to this sermon Aug. 4th sermon titled, “Wise Decisions,” you can listen to it here.

[2] James 1:14.  Here is the greater context: James 1:12   Blessed is the man who remains steadfast under trial, for when he has stood the test he will receive the crown of life, which God has promised to those who love him. 13 Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am being tempted by God,” for God cannot be tempted with evil, and he himself tempts no one. 14 But each person is tempted when he is lured and enticed by his own desire. 15 Then desire when it has conceived gives birth to sin, and sin when it is fully grown brings forth death.16   Do not be deceived, my beloved brothers. 17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow due to change. Notice the language of God’s unswerving goodness in verse 17.

[3] Another great place to see this is found in Genesis 50 when Joseph seeks to calm the terror of his brothers after their father Jacob had died. They are concerned for their lives before him since they had left him for dead 25 years prior and he became 2nd only to the Pharaoh in Egypt. He declares this truth, “As for you, you meant evil against me, but God meant it for good, to bring it about that many people should be kept alive, as they are today.” 

Expressive Individualism (EI) and Identity: Part 3

By: Brad Rogers

 

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Several years ago, Rachel, my wife, was the matron of honor in a Macedonian wedding steeped in the Greek Orthodox tradition. She had the time of her life even though she hardly knew what was being said during all of the beautiful and elaborate rites in such a wedding.

 

One part of the ceremony was abundantly clear to her; the husband and wife were crowned as king and queen. No, despite what it might look like they were not crowned as King and Queen of Macedonia – it is a democracy after all.

 

In Greek and Eastern Orthodox wedding ceremonies, the husband and wife are crowned to symbolize that they are made in God’s image and that they are to take dominion on this earth as image-bearers. The act of crowning the bride and groom communicates who God made them to be as well as their responsibility to fulfill their calling together as God’s vice-regents in creation.

 

The beauty of this rite is that it signifies who they are before they have yet achieved anything. It demonstrates their God-given identity, and it certainly carries with it a great degree of responsibility while conveying a wealth of freedom in carrying out that responsibility.

 

This picture paints for us a sharp contrast between the way personal identity is understood in a culture dominated by expressive individualism, where one must forge one’s own identity, and a Christian’s understanding of identity as something received as a gift from God.

 

Selfie or True Self?

In my previous posts on expressive individualism (part 1 & part 2) I noted that the mindset of “You do you” involves forging one’s identity by being true to one’s deepest desires and, purportedly, without input from or regard for others. Using thoughts from Tim Keller’s book Making Sense of God, I noted some problems with expressive individualism and identity. Today, I want to focus on how a Christian is to understand her identity from a biblical vantage point.

 

In contrast to expressive individualism, a Christian’s identity is not found deep within oneself with all of the problems and stress this brings, but the Christian’s identity is found outside of oneself. As Soren Kierkegaard put it, who one is before God is who one really is.

 

In the Christian worldview, all of us are created by God in his image. As image bearers, we are to reflect in this world something of who God is and it speaks to how we are to take care of this world. This worldview considers every person, regardless of race, class, or even creed, as having profound dignity and significance regardless of the good or evil acts they have done in life. Every person has significance and worth in the eyes of God because of how God made us and who he made us to be.

 

For the Christ follower, there is an extra dimension to our identity as both redeemed people and adopted children by our heavenly father through faith in Christ. A follower of Christ never has to wonder if he has done enough or if he is enough. She never has to wonder if she is accepted. He never has to wonder if he is significant, because God already declared his significance. She can know that she has been made in the image of God for the glory of God and is loved so much that God, the father, sent his only son to die for her, that she might be adopted into God’s family.

 

If expressive individualism states that you are what you make of yourself, then the Christian view states that you discover your true self in relation to the God who made you. This means that my identity is not merely, nor chiefly, a construct of my own preferences, choices, accomplishments, and affiliations.[1] Rather, I am who I am according to the God who made me. And this is a glorious identity.

 

A Christian who is truly grasps her identity through Christ can love and serve others freely without the need to make a name for herself or prove her own worth. You don’t need to work for approval, but you can work knowing that God approves of you and you can enjoy the security and freedom of knowing you can’t lose it. In stark contrast to the age of the selfie, a Christian doesn’t need to forge an identity for himself, he must only seek to further understand his God given identity.

 

Lost and Found

The specific commands in the Bible that God gives to us specifically as his image bearers are there to help us live out our true identity. As creator and designer, God has the absolute right to direct us in how he made us to live. The fish can yearn for a free life outside of the fishbowl, but he will quickly find that life without water doesn’t bring him the freedom to be himself it seems to promise. Tim Keller writes, “. . . those things he (God) prohibits are the intrusions of the foreign matter of sin and not part of the person I was made to be. . . ”[2]  

 

Accepting our God given identity and following Christ means we have to quit trying to “find ourselves” and allow ourselves to be found in Christ. It means we must humbly deny ourselves, giving up our right to self-determination, and follow Jesus. It is in losing our identity that we truly find ourselves, for Jesus said, “Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it.”[3] He also says in John 8:36, “So if the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed.”

 

Uniqueness in Conformity

Some people interpret the notion of denying ourselves and taking up our cross to follow Jesus to mean that we must leave behind the traits that make us uniquely us and that Christians are supposed to have a uniformity that is boring, bland, and devoid of individual difference and taste. Yet, this fails to account for the jaw-dropping diversity of our great creator God.

 

Have you ever seen a lionfish? Or a duckbilled platypus? Are any two snowflakes exactly the same? As Rankin Wilbourne wrote, God never runs out of ideas: “He is the master artist, an infinite creator, not a factory. We can see from looking around us in the world that his goal is not uniformity.”[4] As Christians become more like Christ, we also become more like the unique individual God created us to be. We are God’s workmanship (Eph. 2:10); that is, we are his works of art.  

 

Please don’t think I am saying it is easy to step away from expressive individualism and our cultural views or to take up one’s cross. It’s not easy to swim upstream in culture like this. However, following Christ is far from enslaving. It’s also far from boring. We are God’s crowning achievement, and he calls us to live like it. In reality, it’s quite a freeing and a glorious privilege.

 

 


References:

[1] Rankin Wilbourne, “Union with Christ,” 145.

[2] Timothy Keller, “Making Sense of God,” 141.

[3] Matthew 10:39 (ESV).

[4] Rankin Wilbourne, “Union with Christ,” , 162-163.

Expressive Individualism and Identity, Part 2

By: Brad Rogers

 

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Check out part one of this series, You Do You, my attempt at a brief introduction to expressive individualism (EI).

In part one, we examined the “You do you” mindset, called expressive individualism. EI is the idea that finding and being true to one’s deepest self and then articulating that self out in the world is the key to life. In its strictest forms this mentality doesn’t invite input from anyone else, including family, friends, or church for fear of not being true to one’s self. Thus, it is an unapologetically self-focused method of identity formation that is pervasive in Western culture today.

 

Today, in part two, I’m going to summarize in my own words a section from Making Sense of God, written by Tim Keller, who ministers in New York City. In chapter six of Making Sense of God Keller looks at the notion of identity formation and some of the issues we face today.[1]

 

In the segment we are considering here, Keller writes about how the foundation of our sense of self has changed recently in Western society.

 

He says that in ancient cultures and many non-Western cultures today the hero’s story is of self-sacrifice, and his self-worth was grounded in the honor bestowed upon him by his community. By contrast, today in the modern West the hero’s story is about self-assertion, and the hero’s sense of self-worth is rooted in the honor he bestows upon himself.[2]

 

Keller pinpoints a few problems with the ways that Western people today define and create their identity. He describes these problems as incoherent desires, the illusion of self-identification, crushing pressure and how he sees modern identity fracturing today.  I will seek only seek to summarize and discuss the first three here.  

 

Incoherent Desire

EI based identity is rooted in a person’s particular wants and desires. For example, we ask ourselves “What do I want to do with my life?”

 

Here’s the problem: when I look into my heart, I see all kinds of desires in there. There are some that I wouldn’t mind sharing with you and others I will keep to myself lest you never again take me seriously. When I look closely, I find that many of my desires are contradictory. For instance, I want to spend more time preparing sermons (at the office) and I want to spend more time investing in my kids playing ball. I want to be svelte and ripped, but I also want to eat a box a cereal with whole milk every night right before I go to bed.  If I’m going to ground my identity in my desire, how do I decide which desires to pursue?

 

What if I locate my deepest desire and follow it?  Keller writes that this solution has its flaws because it assumes that our desires are ordered and that they always remain the same. I can tell you that, at least for me, desires aren’t static. When I was twelve years old I wanted to be Navy Fighter Pilot. From time to time, I catch myself daydreaming about going to medical school and becoming a doctor, but tomorrow I might be dreaming of earning a Ph.D in historical theology.  When I was in high school I wanted to be 6’4”, bench press 350 lbs., run 4.3 40 yard dash, and play Quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys.  Oh wait, I still want that and still think it could happen, but I am afraid that is another category altogether, sorry.  I have had quite a number of competing occupational desires in my lifetime and I can’t begin to number the competing desires I have had in other significant areas of my life.

 

Our desires are apt to change, and they are also elusive. Has anyone ever asked you what you want and you find that you really don’t know? Identity formation grounded on desire assumes that I have a deep understanding of myself, and if it what I want isn’t readily apparent, it can be found with a little effort. Given the chaotic nature of our souls, this seems like unstable ground stand on. Identity rooted in elusive desire is inarguably incoherent. 

 

Sigmund Freud believed that our innermost being is filled with a chaos of desire for power, love, comfort, and control and that these desires compete and would trample each other to win out if they could. He wrote, “We are not happy because we are frustrated….we are frustrated because we are, first of all, unhappy combinations of conflicting desires.”[3] Indeed.

 

Reflecting on more of Freud’s body of work, Keller writes that “Freud would have shaken his head at many of his descendants in modern psychotherapy who have lost his realism about the inner darkness, incoherence, and destructiveness of the inmost desires.”[4] While Freud would give another name to our inner darkness, the bible calls it sin and says that it invades all aspects of our being, which makes basing our identity on our deepest desires problematic and to Keller’s point, incoherent.

 

Illusion of Self-Identification

One of the components of current identity formation is that you alone set the standard and norm for yourself. You declare your significance to yourself.  The problem is, this is impossible to do. And we know it instinctively.

 

Keller writes of a young man whose parents never said to him, “‘I would be proud of you if you did this or that.’” When he asked them for guidance they replied, “We just want you to do what you truly want to do -whatever that is, it will be all right with us.” The young man complained  that their lack of guidance and input made him “feel unloved and rudderless.”[5]

 

We all want to be admired by those we admire, and we want to be respected by those we respect. It is when we find the approval of someone that we love or care about that we find a sense of worth. Keller writes that even though people act like, and even think that, they are “validating themselves,” they (we) are adapting our words and behaviors to fit into a new community of people – the kind of people from whom we crave approval.[6] For me, when certain people complement or criticize a sermon I preached it means more to me than when I hear it from others.

 

Have you ever seen a social media post where someone states an opinion and then says “that is just who I am and I don’t care what other people think,” and yet it has 57 “likes”? The poster may have rejected what some people think, but he apparently cares what some crowd of people think, otherwise why would he have posted in a public forum at all?

 

The irony is that, “I don’t care what others think” is exactly the sentiment that our current culture applauds. We think we have set our minds free, when really we are trapped by the beliefs of our age or tribe. On this, Keller quotes sociologist Robert Bellah who calls this idea a “cultural fiction” that we can “make up our deepest beliefs in the isolation of our private selves.”[7]

 

It is an illusion that we have the capacity to form an identity without being influenced by outside factors and other people.

 

Crushing Pressure of Identity

Everywhere I look I see articles on how much anxiety people are experiencing today in comparison with days gone by. What is going on? Why is this the case?

 

There are multiple factors, I think, but the pressure of “being ones’ self” and “forging one’s own identity” must be near the top of the list. Imagine the pressure of trying to be myself and to forge my identity without others’ help while I struggle to know what my deep desires are only to discover that they are in conflict.

 

Keller points out that when self-definition of identity is the norm, it leads to a society that idolizes winners and looks down on losers, with tangible contempt for weakness. He writes, “success or failure is now seen as the individual’s responsibility alone,” in part because “our culture tells us that we have the power to create ourselves.”[8] So if what we create fails, we alone are to blame and “failure” becomes a defining characteristic of our identity.

 

So many of us today feel the pressure to decide on our own where we go to college, our career, and our mate along with our ethos, our stances and our style, and these decisions are the expression of who we “really” are. And we drink this ideology in the air we breathe without recognizing the pressure it brings.

 

Do you see the irony here? Expressive individualism leaves us more dependent on what others think of us than ever, because, as Keller writes, we feel the pressure to be brilliant, beautiful, hip, and accomplished and we need others to agree to make it true.[9] This overdependence on others enslaves us, e.g. posting “the perfect” picture at just the right time in the evening on social media to maximize our “likes”.

 

To the extent that this is true in our culture and in our own lives, what are we to do? Anxiety and despair are not aspects of the abundant life that we are promised, so what is the answer?

 

The third and final part of this series, The Christian Identity and EI, will be posted next week.

 


Resources

[1] Timothy Keller, Making Sense of God, An Invitation to the Skeptical, (Viking, 2016), 118-132.

[2] It should be noted that Keller acknowledges that there are problems associated with the ancient and non-Western methods of identity formation as well as important positive aspects of identity formation in the West today by comparison with the ancient and non-Western methods. We will consider a biblical way to look at identity formation in part 3.

[3] Phillip Reiff, Freud: The Mind of the Moralist, 35.

[4] Keller, Making Sense of God, 124.

[5] Ibid., 126.

[6] Ibid., 125.

[7] Ibid., 128.

[8] Ibid., 129.

[9] Ibid., 129.

You Do You: Expressive Individualism, Part 1

By: Brad Rogers

 

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“You be you.”

“Be true to yourself.”

“Follow your heart.”

“Find yourself.”

 

“You do you.” That’s the one I hear most frequently these days.

 

I’m sure you’ve heard one of these slogans, or one like them, because they are ubiquitous in American culture today.

 

There are certain situations where I hear these sentiments voiced and I think they are quite fitting, and I am glad somebody said them. These mantras have certainly been on my lips.

 

Sometimes, though, I wish they had not been said. Occasionally, I hear someone make a “You do you” type statement and I think to myself:

 

  • “I don’t want him to be himself right now. Somebody needs to tell him he needs to change.”

  • “How am I going to find myself? What does that even mean? I have been looking a long time and I am still right here.”

  •  “I don’t want to ‘do me’ right now because I am trying to help someone else and be what they need me to be.” 

  • “Isn’t it best to conform for the good of others sometimes?” 

  •  “Sure, you feel better after giving full vent to your feelings about how I have ruined your life, but did it occur to you that it might feel terrible for me? Do my feelings matter when ‘you do you’?”

 

Feel free to judge whether or not I am judgmental much of the time, (of course, I am), but is it possible I am on the right track in certain instances? Is “you do you” really an all-encompassing lens through which we should be viewing all of life?

 

Trevin Wax, a professor at Wheaton College, recently wrote a compelling series of articles on the “You do you” mentality, otherwise known as expressive individualism, which is a powerful movement sweeping Western culture.

 

You Be the Judge

Wax defines expressive individualism as making the purpose of one’s life “to find one’s deepest self and then express that to the world” while disregarding the input of “family, friends, political affiliations, previous generations, or religious authorities . . .” It means that you alone are the judge of who you are, what you should do, what is best for you, and how you should interact in society.

 

This isn’t about being genuine, though. “Authenticity,” is one of the highest values in a culture of expressive individualism, according Charles Taylor, a Roman Catholic philosopher. Yet, authenticity isn’t being used as a synonym for honesty, integrity, credibility, and purity. Instead, as Taylor writes, “it pits authenticity against conformity” – including conformity to parental, political, and religious authority.

 

Western countries are especially vulnerable to fall into expressive individualism due to their historical roots in individual freedom, personal autonomy, self-definition, and self-expression. In the West, we have a great deal of individual freedom and personal autonomy with respect to others, and this is a great thing. In fact, I think it’s worth fighting to keep. However, it is problematic to make individual freedom and autonomy the ultimate value. As an ultimate value, it runs counter to the call of Jesus to seek him and his righteousness first. He says the greatest of all is the one who serves rather than the one who expresses whatever one feels the loudest and longest. I do hope you can see the contrast.

 

I am a Christian minister, but I still live and breathe the cultural air. If I am to follow Jesus, I must consider how our particular cultural moment may pull me away, even unwittingly, from Jesus. If following Jesus matters to you (and even if it doesn’t), I invite you to consider the possible impact of expressive individualism in your own life and in the lives of those you love through this series of posts. Let me leave you with one more nugget that I hope will help you better understand expressive individualism and set the stage for a more detailed critique in my next post.

 

Expressive Individualism and Identity

Expressive individualism is all about forging and expressing a personal identity.

 

American journalist Yuval Levin describes expressive individualism as more than picking your own path in life. It is also “a yearning for fulfillment through the definition and articulation of one’s own identity… and to live in society by fully asserting who you are.” It isn’t just about self-direction in life, but the drive for public self-pronouncement to advance your self-ness.

 

Is this a problem? What could possibly go wrong?

 

In part two of this series, Expressive Individualism and Identity, we explore the problems that occur when expressive individualism influences identity formation.